____ 4. The coefficients of x^n and y^n both equal 1. It is now recognized that Einsteinâs description of gravity as the curvature of space-time in his General Theory of Relativity was actually one of the first indications of a universe which had grown out of much humbler beginnings.
This expansion, usually referred to as the "metric expansion" of space, is a “broad-brush effect” in that individual galaxies themselves are not expanding, but the clusters of galaxies into which the matter of the universe has become divided are becoming more widely separated and more thinly spread throughout space. How will the gravitational force on a piece of the surface of the star (m1) by the mass of the rest of the star (m2) (effectively located at a point at the center of the star) compare between the AGB and main-sequence phases of a particular star, assuming its mass stays the same?
The first one is shown here and uses tiny blue dots for the position of each individual galaxy within a slice of space.
There is more space to stretch between them, When they look into the universe, astronomers observe that nearly all galaxies are moving away from the Milky Way. An essential feature of the theory is that the average density in space declines as the universe expands; the distribution of matter forms no observable edge. Step-by-step explanation: A p e x These moons in our Solar System likely have more liquid water than all the oceans on Earth.
Hubble's law and the Big Bang theory are related because, Hubble's law is an observation that led to the development of the Big Bang Theory, The CMB and the Big Bang theory are related because.
Under this scenario, what is the first event that will eventually happen?
On the basis of the colors and lifetimes of different types of stars, which of the following statements best describes the current state of the bulge and disk? The existence of an expanding universe implies that the cosmos has evolved from a dense concentration of matter into the present broadly spread distribution of galaxies. So far it has been easy to develop theories that are consistent with the available measurements, but more critical tests are in progress.
Ants are placed on paper clips on rubber band being stretched. There must have been some repulsive force acting against gravity. Hubble's constant is used to quantify the rate of universal expansion or contraction.
He assumed without discussion that the universe is static, unchanging in the large-scale average [see “How Cosmology Became a Science,” by Stephen G. Brush; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, August 1992]. The test is simple conceptually, but it took decades for astronomers to develop detectors sensitive enough to study distant galaxies in detail. While working on the development of radar in the 1940s, Robert H. Dicke, then at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, invented the microwave radiometer—a device capable of detecting low levels of radiation. What may happen to a neutron star near this 3 solar mass limit that is in a close binary and is accreting (i.e., stealing) mass from its companion, as in the situation pictured here? What does the information in the figure imply about our view of the universe? Which of the following statements about Native American civil rights are correct?
Particle accelerators probe the basic physics of the high-energy environment of the early universe. How does this new estimate of the mass of the Milky Way affect the calculation of the escape velocity from our galaxy?
The English East India Company established its first commercial factory at Surat in 1613. This observation suggests that, an observer in a distant galaxy would make the same observation, The CMB is essentially uniform in all directions in the sky. Answer: For any term x^ay^b in the expansion, a + b = n. And. This means that no matter what galaxy you happen to be in, all the other galaxies are moving away from you. Alpher and Herman also realized that a remnant of the original expansion would still be detectable in the existing universe.
Where would these stars fit on the graph shown of rotation velocities at distances from the galactic center? Which wavelengths would be best to observe objects in order to get a view that is the least obstructed by interstellar extinction. Albert Einstein gave us the now well-tested and accepted Theory of General Relativity, which establishes the relations between mass, energy, space and time. Astronomers have never observed a first star with elements heavier than lithium. A main-sequence star of 3 solar masses has a radius of approximately 2.5 times the radius of our Sun.
The hierarchy of clustering has been traced up to dimensions of about 500 million light-years. In other words, the universe has no center; everything is moving away from everything else. occur in most, perhaps all, large galaxies. Which were predicted by the theory and subsequently observed? Within 10-30 seconds, the universe would have doubled in size 100,000 times, which is more than enough expansion to explain the flatness problem. According to Newton's formula, what would happen to the gravitational force felt by an object on the surface of this 3-solar-mass star if the star's entire mass gradually collapsed to a singularity? cosmic microwave background radiation and the abundance of helium, Galaxy formation is similar to star formation because both, are the result of gravitational instabilities. Both red and blue stars form inside the spiral arms.
Hydrogen on the surface of the white dwarf will undergo nuclear fusion. As this material accumulates, they suggested, it forms new stars to replace the old. If the galaxy is moving away from us, these emission and absorption features are shifted to longer wavelengths—that is, they become redder as the recession velocity increases. Carbon is a favorable base for life because, it can bond to many other atoms in long chains, Scientists look for water to indicate places where life might exist because.
The ages of the oldest known chemical elements are also approximately 15 billion years—a number that comes from radioactive dating techniques. Please enable Cookies and reload the page.
What does this imply about the first stars? In the 1930s Richard C. Tolman of the California Institute of Technology showed that the temperature of the cosmic background would diminish because of the universe’s expansion. The big bang cosmology implies, however, that life is possible only for a bounded span of time: the universe was too hot in the distant past, and it has limited resources for the future. The escape velocity from the galaxy is less than previously estimated.
Some years later, in 1925, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble stunned the scientific community by demonstrating that there was more to the universe than just our Milky Way galaxy and that there were, in fact, many separate islands of stars - thousands, perhaps millions of them, and many of them huge distances away from our own.
Some 15 billion years ago the universe emerged from a hot, dense sea of matter and energy.
But others, notably the Russian physicist Alexander Friedmann and the Belgian priest and physicist Georges LemaÃ®tre, had already used Einsteinâs own theory of proof that the universe was in fact in motion, either contracting or expanding.
How were these dust grains distinguished from Solar System grains? Measurements of such tiny fluctuations have not yet been done, but they might be accomplished in the generation of experiments now under way. In the disk of the Milky Way, stars are ______ and dust and gas are _____ than in the halo. Adding additional and arbitrary terms to a theory is not something that scientists do lightly, and many people argued that it was an artificial and arbitrary construct and at best a stop-gap solution.
If the view at the time was correct and there was no Big Bang, and subsequently no expansion of the universe, what must have been true for the universe to have been static? Most galaxies are still producing new stars, but many others have already exhausted their supply of gas.
A higher density will cause the universe's expansion to slow more with time. What happens when a low-mass star sheds its outer layer?
the expansion of the universe is accelerating. At a particular instant roughly 15 billion years ago, all the matter and energy we can observe, concentrated in a region smaller than a dime, began to expand and cool at an incredibly rapid rate.
The orbital properties of the stars within the innermost 0.03 parsecs of the galactic center, as plotted in the following diagram, indicate that there are 4 million solar masses within the tiny, central region. Rather, they are spiral density waves of energy that move through the galaxy, compressing gas within the peaks of the waves.
However, the galaxies are not moving through space, they are moving in space, because space is also moving. Conditions were still too hot, however, for atomic nuclei to capture electrons. Native Americans have successfully used the courts to win reparations from the federal government The Supreme Court ruled that Native Americans are not subject to state laws prohibiting gambling. He has experienced total solar eclipses in 1970 on an island off the Massachusetts coast, in 2006 in the Egyptian desert, and in 2009 from a cruise ship in the Pacific Ocean--but missed one due to clouds in 1999 in southern Germany. At that point, the temperature was about 3,000 kelvins, cool enough to allow the ions and electrons to combine to form neutral hydrogen and helium.
There will be more star formation inside the spiral arms. So-called dark matter would make up the difference.
The cosmic background radiation has two distinctive properties. An object as massive and compact as a galaxy can act as a crude lens, producing a distorted, magnified image (or even many images) of any background radiation source that lies behind it.
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