Mix. Thymol has a refractive index of 1.5208 and an experimental dissociation exponent (pKa) of 10.59±0.10. It is also soluble in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions due to deprotonation of the phenol. Tests. of a 10 per cent solution of sodium hydrate, a clear, colorless, or very slightly reddish solution should be formed, which becomes darker on standing, but without the separation of oily drops (absence of thymen, or laevogyrate pinene (C10H16).
, The bee balms Monarda fistulosa and Monarda didyma, North American wildflowers, are natural sources of thymol.
, Regions lacking natural sources of thymol obtain the compound via total synthesis. FORMULA: C10H14O. Ord.—Umbelliferae). EC Number 201-944-8.  In this period, women also often gave knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves, as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. It is a remedy for chyluria. New Methods of Food Preservation. People of the Middle East continue to use za'atar, a delicacy made with large amounts of thyme, to reduce and eliminate internal parasites. The respiratory mucous membranes become excited, the expectoration is diminished, becomes thinner and less tenacious, contains a much smaller amount of mucin, and is more freely passed. Listerine is an agreeable non-irritant and non-escharotic antiseptic preparation composed of the essential antiseptic constituents of thyme, eucalyptus, gaultheria, baptisia, and Mentha arvensis combined with refined benzo-boracic acid. Dr. B. Kussner has found that from 3 to 5 drops of a 1 per cent solution of thymol is beneficial in diarrhoea of children.  Thymol is also the active antiseptic ingredient in some toothpastes, such as Johnson & Johnson's Euthymol. M. Lewin considers thymol very useful in diphtheria and other similar diseases dependent upon the action of living organisms; also in arresting the hypersecretion of various mucous membranes. Related Preparation.—LISTERINE. Beilstein/REAXYS Number 1907135 . Description.—Thymol, as described by the U. S. P., forms "large, colorless, translucent crystals of the hexagonal system, having an aromatic, thyme-like odor, and a pungent, aromatic taste, with a very slight caustic effect upon the lips.
The antibacterial properties of thymol, a major part of thyme essential oil, as well as other constituents, are in part associated with their lipophilic character, leading to accumulation in bacterial membranes and subsequent membrane-associated events, such as energy depletion. Thymol exists in oil of thyme, associated with two hydrocarbons of greater volatility, cymol (C10H14), and thymene (C10C16) (see Oleum Thymi). An increase in the quantity of urine was frequently noticed; and the urine presented a dark, greenish color, as if it contained blood, and appeared a yellowish-brown when illuminated by reflected light.
 It is also used as a preservative in halothane, an anaesthetic, and as an antiseptic in mouthwash. If 1 Gm.  Thymol can also be used as a medical disinfectant and general purpose disinfectant. An ointment has likewise been advantageously employed, by thoroughly triturating together from 2 to 20 drops of a thick, alcoholic solution of thymol with 1 ounce of petrolatum or pure lard. M. Baelz, who has made some comparative experiments with thymol and salicylic acid (in the service of M. Wunderlich) upon persons in health, and also those affected with typhoid fever, articular rheumatism, phthisis, and pyelitis, states that in doses of ⅙ of a grain, repeated several times, no effect was observed; in order to obtain an appreciable therapeutical result, it was necessary to give daily from 25 to 30 grains.  Thymol demonstrates in vitro post-antibacterial effect against the test strains E. coli and P. aeruginosa (gram negative), and Staphylococcus aureus and B. cereus (gram positive). , Regions lacking natural sources of thymol obtain the compound via total synthesis. King's American Dispensatory, 1898, was written by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr.
Fifteen grains of thymol dissolved in 2 pints of distilled water, forms an invaluable disinfectant; this has been found effective in disinfecting sick rooms, and as a local application to prevent septicemia during the parturient period, as well as at other times when there is reason to fear its development.  In this period, women also often gave knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves, as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer.
Its alcoholic solution is optically inactive"—(U. S. P.). Thymol also dissolves in 120 parts of glycerin. When used to reduce plaque and gingivitis, thymol has been found to be more effective when used in combination with chlorhexidine than when used purely by itself. If to this a few drops of chloroform be added, and the mixture agitated, a violet color will be produced. This has been used as a local application in burns, eczema, psoriasis, tinea, lichen, and other cutaneous affections and as a parasiticide. These solutions may be applied on lint, or by spray.  Thymol absorbs maximum UV radiation at 274 nm. Mix. Larger quantities of thymol occur in the oil of horsemint (see Monarda). It is a crystalline white powder, but little soluble in water. Prof. Webster reports a satisfactory use of thymol in expelling tapeworm. The effects of thymol on sister chromatid exchange, chromosome aberration and micronucleus in human lymphocytes.
Thymol boils at 230° C. (446° F.) (Doveri and Lallemand).  The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing it was a source of courage. The dose for internal use is 1 fluid drachm, in, 3 or 4 times a day, full strength or diluted with water. Its specific gravity, as a solid, is 1.069 at 15° C. (59° F.), but when liquefied by fusion it is lighter than water. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), "A Brief History of Thyme - Hungry History", "Sur la composition de l'huile essentielle de thym", "Ueber eine Synthese von Thymol aus Cuminol", "Biological Activities of Three Essential Oils of the Lamiaceae Family", "Thymol and carvacrol: biotransformation and antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum acutatum and Botryodiplodia theobromae", "Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of, "The Essential Oil of Monarda didyma L. (Lamiaceae) Exerts Phytotoxic Activity In Vitro against Various Weed Seeds", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thymol&oldid=986742896, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, Articles with incomplete citations from August 2017, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 49 to 51 °C (120 to 124 °F; 322 to 324 K), Iridoid glycosides (iridoids bound to a sugar), Terpene synthase enzymes (many), having in common a, This page was last edited on 2 November 2020, at 19:08. This latter is held in the patient's mouth, who will aspire the air charged with the vapor of the thymol. Tests.—"If a very small crystal of thymol be dissolved in 1 Cc. The spread of thyme throughout Europe was thought to be due to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs". XIV, Parts III and IV). Thymol also provides the distinctive, strong flavor of the culinary herb thyme, also produced from T. vulgaris. Upon coming in contact with the bucco-pharyngeal mucous membrane, the medicine occasioned a pricking sensation and a disagreeable taste; there was seldom any nausea, and vomiting occurred but once among 36 persons. It …  This antibacterial activity is caused by inhibiting growth and lactate production, and by decreasing cellular glucose uptake. , An in vitro study found thymol and carvacrol to be highly effective in reducing the minimum inhibitory concentration of several antibiotics against zoonotic pathogens and food spoilage bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium SGI 1 and Streptococcus pyogenes ermB.  Thymol can also be used as a medical disinfectant and general purpose disinfectant. Thymol has been used to successfully control varroa mites and prevent fermentation and the growth of mold in bee colonies, methods developed by beekeeper R. O. Successful nail fungus treatments may take 6 months or more of applications. of glacial acetic acid, and then 6 drops of sulphuric acid and 1 drop of nitric acid be added, the liquid will assume a deep bluish-green color. In making solutions of thymol with glycerin and water, it is best to triturate the thymol in a mortar with a small portion of alcohol, until it is dissolved, then add the desired menstruum. It is also soluble in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions due to deprotonation of the phenol. Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Thymol is an antiseptic and disinfectant, and is considered by many who have experimented with it, to be superior, in these respects, to carbolic acid. , Thymol has been used in alcohol solutions and in dusting powders for the treatment of tinea or ringworm infections, and was used in the United States to treat hookworm infections. , The bee balms Monarda fistulosa and Monarda didyma, North American wildflowers, are natural sources of thymol.
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