Apparently ʿUthmān was selected as a compromise, when the more powerful candidates cancelled each other out. Uthman did not know what to do. This began the major split in Islam between the Shia, who regard Ali as the Prophet’s true heir, and their opponents, the Sunni. Uthman was born to Affān ibn Abi al-'As, of the Umayya, and to Arwa bint Kurayz, of the Abdshams, both wealthy clans of the Quraysh tribe in Mecca. Ali was appointed caliph, but was murdered in 661, when the caliphate was taken over by Muawiya, the Ummayad governor of Syria. Born into a prominent Meccan clan, Banu Umayya of the Quraysh tribe, he played a major role in early Islamic history, and is known for having ordered the compilation of the standard version of the Quran. Other prominent Muslim historians, like Ibn Kathir, have quoted the same narration. Accordingly, Uthman's supporters later buried him in the Jewish graveyard behind Jannat al-Baqi. If Talhah joined the committee within this period, he was to take part in the deliberations, but if he did not return to Medina within this period, the other members of the committee could proceed with the decision. Thus, Uthman was carried to the graveyard in the clothes that he was wearing at the time of his assassination. Uthman accordingly sent Muhammad ibn Maslamah to Kufa, Usama ibn Zayd to Basra, Ammar ibn Yasir to Egypt, and Abdullah ibn Umar to Syria. During this Council of Governors, Uthman ordered that all resolutions of the council be adopted according to local circumstances. ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān, (died June 17, 656, Medina, Arabian Peninsula), third caliph to rule after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. , On 17 June 656, finding the gate of Uthman's house strongly guarded by his supporters, the Egyptian rebels climbed the back wall and crept inside, unbeknownst to the gate guards. They therefore decided to take action against Uthman before the pilgrimage was over. Naila was accompanied by some women, including Uthman's daughter. Umar, on his deathbed formed a committee of six people to choose the next caliph from amongst themselves. :57 He is listed as one of the 22 Meccans "at the dawn of Islam" who knew how to write. Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان, romanized: ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān; 576/573 – 17 June 656), also spelled by the Turkish and Persian rendering Osman, was a son-in-law and notable companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as the third of the Rāshidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs". In 655 a group of Egyptian malcontents marched upon Medina, the seat of caliphal authority. Later, Uthman presented the armour back to Ali as a wedding present. Abu Nu`aym, Hilya al-Awliya' 1:92–100 #3; al-Dhahabi, Siyar A`lam al-Nubala' 1/2: 566–614 #4. On his deathbed, Abu Bakr dictated his will to Uthman, saying that his successor was to be Umar.. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. One way he displayed this was his habit of splitting war booty among his relatives to the exclusion of the combatants.  This represented a great psychological victory for Uthman. , During his rule, Uthman's military-style was more autonomical in nature as he delegated much military authority to his trusted kinsmen—e.g., Abdullah ibn Aamir, Muawiyah I and Abdullāh ibn Sa'ad ibn Abī as-Sarâḥ—unlike Umar's more centralized policy. , To the east, Ahnaf ibn Qais, chief of Banu Tamim and a veteran commander who conquered Shustar earlier, launched a series of further military expansions by further mauling Yazdegerd III near Oxus River in Turkmenistan and later crushing a military coalition of Sassanid loyalists and Hephthalite Empire in the Siege of Herat. Several Sunni scholars, such as Ibn Qutaybah, Ali Ibn Burhanuddin al-Halabi, Ibne Abi-al-Hadeed and Ibne Manzur, reported that there were several leading Sahaba among those who called upon Uthman to step down for reasons such as nepotism and profligacy. Four hundred was set aside as mahr (dower) for Fatimah's marriage, leaving a hundred for all other expenses. This phase of conquest ended under ʿUthmān and ramified widely. ʿUthmān, however, was conciliatory, and the rebels headed back to Egypt. 4. did ‘uthman die a ‘martyr’? [page needed], On returning from a business trip to Syria in 611, Uthman learned of Muhammad's declared mission. The fiscal strain of such expansion and the growing independence…. During the time of Uthman, these restrictions were relaxed. Unfortunately for Uthman, violence still occurred. She had her fingers chopped off and was pushed aside. , The early stage of the siege of Uthman's house was not severe, but, as the days passed, the rebels intensified the pressure against Uthman. ʿUthmān rarely displayed energy or initiative, however, and his role in the first years of Islamic history was passive. , From an expansionist perspective, Uthman is regarded as skilled in conflict management, as is evident from how he dealt with the heated and troubled early Muslim colonies, such as Kufa and Basra, by directing the hot-headed Arab settlers to new military campaigns and expansions. It is said, according to Sunni Muslim accounts, that before returning to Syria, the governor Muawiyah, Uthman's cousin, suggested that Uthman should come with him to Syria as the atmosphere there was peaceful. As a result of his policies, ʿUthmān was opposed by the army, and he was often dominated by his relatives—unlike ʿUmar, who had been strong enough to impose his authority on the governors, whatever their clan or tribe. He established a system of landed fiefs and distributed many of the provincial governorships to members of his family. ʼAffân in Three ʻAbbasid Chronicles", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Uthman&oldid=984337587, Sahabah who participated in the battle of Uhud, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox royalty with unknown parameters, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2015, Articles needing additional references from July 2013, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles with failed verification from July 2018, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 October 2020, at 16:00. , Uthman was born in Ta'if. Discontent mounted, however, over the favour Uthman showed to his own Ummayad family, who seemed to enjoy a monopoly of influential and lucrative appointments.  This subsequently paved the way for the establishment of several Muslim states in the Mediterranean Sea during the later Umayyad and Abbasid eras, which came in the form of the Emirate of Sicily and its minor vassal the Emirate of Bari, as well as the Emirate of Crete and the Aglabid Dynasty. 1556332. ʿUthmān is critically important in Islamic history because his death marked the beginning of open religious and political conflicts within the Islamic community (see fitnah). Later, in the Majlis al Shurah (council of ministers), it was suggested to Uthman that reliable agents be sent to various provinces to attempted to determine the source of the discontent. , In Hijri year 31 (c. 651), Uthman sent Abdullah ibn Zubayr and Abdullah ibn Saad to reconquer the Maghreb, where he met the army of Gregory the Patrician, Exarch of Africa and relative of Heraclius, which is recorded to have numbered between 120,000 and 200,000 soldiers, Although another estimate was recorded, Gregory's army was put at 20,000. Uthman was killed by muslims becouse he burned 7 different QURANs (QURAN no.1 belonging to Hafsa,) (QURAN no2,belonging to Ali..etc…and because he changed chronology of revelations ei.first revelation was placed in chapter 96 ?..and last revalation was placed in chapter 5 ?.and all suras were placed according to lenght,not according to cronology.. Thus much of the treasure received by the central government went to ʿUthmān’s family and to other provincial governors rather than to the army. Uthman wasn't completely plain and simple, however: he built a palace for himself in Medina, known as Al-Zawar, with a notable feature being doors of precious wood. , According to R. V. C. Bodley, Uthman subjected most of the Islamic nation to his relatives, Bani Umayya, who were partially accursed during Muhammad's lifetime. Historians, like Zaki Muhammad, accused Uthman of corruption, particularly in the case of Waleed ibn Uqba. When Uthman was asked, he voted for Ali, Zubayr said for Ali or Uthman and Saad said for Uthman. He became a merchant like his father, and his business flourished, making him one of the richest men among the Quraysh. Records from al-Bidayah wal Nihayah state that Abdullah's troops were completely surrounded by Gregory's army. One story relates that Aisha, having noted that Muhammad reclined comfortably and spoke casually with Abu Bakr and Umar, asked him why when he addressed Uthman, he chose to gather his clothing neatly and assume a formal manner.  When Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab died in office aged 59/60 years, Uthman, aged 64/65 years, succeeded him and was the second-oldest to rule as Caliph. His election was at once their victory and their opportunity. Professor, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures, Indiana University. He asked them for whom they would cast their vote. Announcing our NEW encyclopedia for Kids! By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. © Copyright 2020 History Today Ltd. Company no. Ammar ibn Yasir, who had been affiliated with Ali, abandoned Uthman for the Egyptian opposition. , The politics of Egypt played the major role in the propaganda war against the caliphate, so Uthman summoned Abdullah ibn Saad, the governor of Egypt, to Medina to consult with him as to the course of action that should be adopted.
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