The membranous forewings are clear, uniformly shaded grey or brown, or patterned in some species; they have a basal lobe (or calypter) that covers the modified knob-like hindwings or halteres.  The flies mainly choose large mammals such as cattle, horses, camels, and deer, but few are species-specific. There are no hairs or arista arising from the antennae.  When fully developed, the larvae move into drier soil near the surface of the ground to pupate. Be sure to watch the area for signs of an infection, such as excessive pus or a foul odor. In most cases, the symptoms subside within a few hours, but if the wound becomes infected, medical advice should be sought. What’s the Difference Between Flea Bites and Bedbug Bites? , The larvae are long and cylindrical with small heads and 12 body segments. In Norse mythology Loki took the form of a gadfly to hinder Brokkr during the manufacture of the hammer Mjölnir, weapon of Thor. Males usually appear first, but when both sexes have emerged, mating takes place, courtship starting in the air and finishing on the ground. The larvae may be parasitized by nematodes, flies of the families Bombyliidae and Tachinidae, and Hymenoptera in the family Pteromalidae. Deer flies and black flies are most prevalent in early to late spring. If you’ve ever thought that a horse fly was out for vengeance, you may be right. Horse flies are attracted to darker colors, so this may help keep them away. Deer flies range in length from 7 to 10 mm while horse flies are from 10 to 25 mm. Sand flies are most active around sunrise or sunset.  Adult horse-flies are eaten by generalized predators such as birds, and some specialist predators, such as the horse guard wasp (a bembicinid wasp), also preferentially attack horse-flies, catching them to provision their nests.
Equine infectious anemia (EIA), sometimes referred to as swamp fever, occurs in the southeastern United States and is mechanically transmitted to horses and other equines by horse fly bites. If your bite hasn’t healed within a week, or if you’re experiencing unusual symptoms such as dizziness or worsening pain, you should consult your doctor.  With the families Athericidae, Pelecorhynchidae and Oreoleptidae, Tabanidae are classified in the superfamily Tabanoidea.  Some species in the subfamily Pangoniinae have an exceptionally long proboscis (tubular mouthpart). Female horse flies usually bite large, nonmoving mammals on the legs or body. , The pupae are brown and glossy, rounded at the head end, and tapering at the other end. Once the horse fly is locked in, it eats the blood from the skin. Insect repellents are helpful, but even the best repellents are not overly effective. Their wings are usually clear or cloudy whereas deer flies have dark bands or spots across their wings. The most obvious sign of a horse fly infestation is the bothersome and painful biting caused by the adult female flies and the symptoms and reactions to their bites. Horse flies tend to be much larger with a stouter body and a very large head with very large eyes. Read on to learn more about symptoms and how to prevent bug bites.  Meigen did pioneering research on flies and was the author of Die Fliegen (The Flies); he gave the name Haematopota, meaning "blood-drinker", to another common genus of horse-flies. These bites are usually only a problem for horses. Horse flies Deer flies, Black flies, and Stable flies are most active during the day. When they bite an equine animal, they can transmit this life-threatening disease. Learn how to tell them apart.
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