These waves are also referred to as primary or compressional waves. Remember to convert minutes to seconds. A circle that is 4.45 cm in radius is drawn around it (the center of the circle is the station). Go back to the previous webpage and select a different station. The location of an earthquake's epicenter (point on the earth's surface directly above the location of rupture or faulting) can be determined using information about two of these seismic waves. This step was only to introduce travel time graphs and explain that they are constructed and used to find wave velocity or epicentral distance. Measure the time that elapses between the arrival of the P (primary) wave and the arrival of the S (secondary) wave to the seismic stations. When consulting the seismogram, P-waves always appear before S-waves, as they travel faster and can travel through three states of matter as opposed to one. Important characteristics of P-waves are: they are the fastest of the seismic waves and are the first to arrive, the particles that the wave passes through move in the same direction as the wave itself (pushing and pulling motion), they travel through solids, liquids, and gases. Some seismic waves are surface waves, while others can travel through the Earth. Doing this for each station (scaling stations' distances from kilometers to centimeters and drawing circles around them equal in radii to the distances in centimeters) will result in three circles on the map surrounding the stations. The x value at this location is the distance to the epicenter of the earthquake. Finding the Distance to the Epicenter from a Seismic Station Now you know the major steps of earthquake epicenter determination: Did you make this project? Use a map and graphical compass to draw arcs of radii equal to the epicentral distances around each station. Primary waves travel with the greatest velocity so they reach the station first, followed by secondary waves, then surface waves. Don't fret if none of your stations were 800 kilometers or closer to the earthquake; you are already given the epicentral distances in kilometers. The time lag between the arrival of the P and S waves at a seismometer station can be used to determine the distance of the epicentre from the station. Look for pattern changes; when the lines get "taller" and closer together than they previously were, there's a good chance a new seismic phase has arrived. = 6.0 min. 1. The arcs for the sample earthquake in Colombia are color coded by station. Important characteristics of P-waves are: The second type of wave to consider when determining the epicenter of an earthquake is the. on Introduction. Red flags will appear over the arrival times of the S waves. The S - P times you have found will correlate to epicentral distances in kilometers or miles. Example: 500 km (map scale)= 2.8 cm (ruler), so 795 km (the Colombian earthquake first station's epicentral distance)= 4.45 cm (on map)... 4.45 cm is measured out on the compass and one end of it is placed on the balloon for the station that was 795 km from the earthquake. Example: 500 km (map scale)= 2.8 cm (ruler), so 795 km (the Colombian earthquake first station's epicentral distance)= 4.45 cm (on map)... 4.45 cm is measured out on the compass and one end of it is placed on the balloon for the station that was 795 km from the earthquake. Therefore the earthquake has an epicenter distance of 3.4 ⋅ 10 3 km, or 3,400 km. About: I'm an undergraduate at Baylor University studying geology. You can check your approximation by going to: Click on the options wheel in the right hand corner. The distance from the epicenter is determined by the length of time it takes for the Primary and Secondary waves to arrive at the recording station. Share it with us! Adjust the sliders to change the arrival times of the P-wave and the S-wave. Our team of exam survivors will get you started and keep you going. Learn more about Maplesoft. Using the S-P time, determine the epicentral distance of each station to the earthquake using a travel time curve. (from Bolt, 1978) Measure the distance between the first P wave and the first S wave. When consulting the seismogram, P-waves always appear before S-waves, as they travel faster and can travel through three states of matter as opposed to one. S-waves can also be characterized by some unique properties: they travel slower than P-waves and are the second wave to arrive, they travel perpendicular to the vibration of the particles, S-waves can pass through solids but not through liquids or gases. of the earthquake. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/map/. The epicenter of the 5.5 earthquake that struck on February 7th occurred in Northern Colombia near Bogota, a few kilometers east of Aratoca. The second type of wave to consider when determining the epicenter of an earthquake is the S-wave. Rather than print it straight from Google you will need to use a screen capture program to save and print the map, otherwise it will be printed from Google maps without a scale. S-waves can also be characterized by some unique properties: of an earthquake. After looking at the Earthquake Time Travel Graph, it is clear that the two curves have a difference of 5 units on the time axis at, = 3.4. The point where the circles overlap is the approximate epicenter of the earthquake. Scroll to the bottom of the webpage for your chosen earthquake, beneath the earthquake info and seismograms to view the list of stations that recorded the shown seismograms. The epicentre is located somewhere on the circle shown, A second seismometer in a different location can help to locate the position of the epicentre, A third seismometer is needed in order to locate the position of the epicentre, The total internal reflection of waves – WJEC, Home Economics: Food and Nutrition (CCEA). A seismogram is a record written by a seismograph in response to ground motions (US Geological Survey definition). Determine the distance of the earthquake epicenter given the following information. Click on the code for that station. For the stations that are less than 800 km in distance to the earthquake, plot the S-P time(s) you found (in seconds) on the "S-P Difference in Travel Times" curve and find what distance this correlates to (see x axis). You should now be presented with information about the earthquake you chose. setECPlotURL('table172_table193_ecplot226', '/support/help/content/1938/ecplot226.gif');setECPlotParameters('table172_table193_ecplot226', {"plotImageUrl":"/support/help/content/1938/ecplot226.gif","installLocation":"table172_table193_ecplot226","visible":"true","pixelExtents":[0.0,207.0,5.0,0.0,189.0,23.0],"plotExtents":[-0.7609944557544823,10.490852140043934,5.136520539222653,-7.721213567576551],"pixel-width":"217","pixel-height":"217","probeInfo":"none"}); Suppose the P-wave arrives at t = 1.0 min and the S-wave arrives at t = 6.0 min. In this case, the first P and S waves are 24 seconds apart. The webpage should look like the previous, except now the seismogram displays the records from only one station rather than six stations (which were color coded). Using the data obtained from the seismic station, seismologists can read the lag time of 16.9 seconds of P waves before S waves detected. These waves can be detected using seismographs. Insert your stations' (locations) into the boxes labeled A, B, and C ("Add Destination" to get the C box), and click "Get Directions.". The distance from this seismic station to the epicenter of the earthquake is approximately A)1,100 km B)2,400 km C)3,100 km D)4,000 km 21.An earthquake's P-wave arrived at a seismograph station at 02 hours 40 minutes 00 seconds. 3. setECPlotURL('table6_ecplot104', '/support/help/content/1938/ecplot104.gif');setECPlotParameters('table6_ecplot104', {"plotImageUrl":"/support/help/content/1938/ecplot104.gif","installLocation":"table6_ecplot104","visible":"true","pixelExtents":[0.0,390.0,5.0,0.0,390.0,5.0],"plotExtents":[-40.0,125.0,5.0,-5.0],"pixel-width":"400","pixel-height":"400","probeInfo":"none"}); A seismogram is the graph output from a seismograph, which is used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake. When choosing arrival times for the primary and secondary waves, you must be as accurate as possible. For the purpose of this instructable you can estimate epicentral distances using the above travel time graph for earthquakes with shallow depths (<20 kilometers) if your earthquake had a station that was 800 kilometers or less from the earthquake. Check that this/these distance(s) match the "Distance to Earthquake" numbers given in deg/km on the webpage for your earthquake. Where these arcs overlap, you may approximate your epicenter. The location of an. Try to pick one that is quite a bit further from the earthquake. You are using other peoples copyrighted images here. English | Français | Deutsch | 日本語, © Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc. 2020. Refer to the Earthquake Time Travel Graph. You may choose to view an older earthquake. Read about our approach to external linking. To determine the difference between the arrival of the P waves and S waves, scroll to the bottom of the page and change zoom from "Default" to "Around S Wave.". Subtract the P wave arrival time from the S wave arrival time to find the S-P lag time. Language: To the right you will also see seismograms. *The sample earthquake estimates 3 minutes 3 seconds (00:03:03) for the S wave at station BCIP and 1 minute 41 seconds for the P wave (00:01:41), so the S-P is 82 seconds (183-101). Click on the printer icon in the left corner of the webpage. Since you are not using a computer program make your best estimation. The first P-waves of the earthquake were recorded at a recording station in Houston at 6:12.6 a.m. and the first S-waves arrived at the same Houston station at 6:17.1 a.m. Use the travel time graph (FIGURE 16.5) to determine an answer for each question below. If we know the time lag between the arrival of P and S waves, we can calculate the distance of the earthquake from the station. 3. The arrival of these waves are recognized on the seismogram by a sharp increase in amplitude and decrease in frequency. These waves are also referred to as secondary or shear waves. A seismic station close to the earthquake records P waves and S waves in quick succession. If you are using a PC, press the Windows logo key +PrtScn or press Alt+Print Screen by holding down the Alt key and then pressing the Print Screen key. Try on your own to locate the S wave arrival. Your feedback will be used

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