, Kapiʻolani shared in her husband Kalākaua's vision of Hoʻolulu Lāhui (increasing the nation) and developed an interest in the health problems plaguing the Hawaiian population at the time. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. View physicians from our major centers of excellence or from across our health care system. As the first queen to visit the United States, her activities received extensive coverage in various U.S. newspapers. Dole, however, defied the order, claiming that Cleveland did not have the authority to interfere.  A special octagon-shaped pavilion and grandstand were built for the February 12, 1883, ceremony.  Due to weather conditions, the planned illumination of the palace and grounds on the day of the coronation happened a week later, and the public was invited to attend. She died from complications related to a stroke in 1917. After establishing the "Oni pa'a" (Stand Firm) movement to fight the annexation and making several more unsuccessful appeals to the U.S. government, Liliuokalani relented and lived out her life as a private citizen. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.  Kapiʻolani wore a peacock feathered dress design by her Special Equerry James Washington Lonoikauoalii McGuire. A History of Caring for Hawaii’s Women and Children. , Her full name was Kapiʻolani Napelakapuokakaʻe. Julia Na-pela-kapu-o-Kakaʻe Kapi‘olani was born on December 31, 1834, in Hilo, Hawaiʻi. Thereafter she withdrew from public life, enjoying a government pension and the homage of islanders and visitors alike. We strive for accuracy and fairness. Concerned about the welfare of Hawaii’s mothers and babies, Queen Kapiolani founded the Kapiolani Maternity Home in 1890.  Although unsuccessful in his attempt for the throne in 1873, Kalākaua defeated Queen Dowager Emma to succeed Lunalilo as the monarch of Hawaii on February 12, 1874.  Her two younger sisters were Kapoʻoloku Poʻomaikelani (1839–1895), who married Hiram Kahanawai, and Kinoiki Kekaulike (1843–1884), who married David Kahalepouli Piʻikoi. , Kapiʻolani was remarried on December 19, 1863, to David Kalākaua in a quiet ceremony conducted by an Anglican minister. (Later, she tried to claim that the abdication was invalid as she had signed her married name, rather than her royal one.). , Their marriage remained childless. Thus, the king impatiently jammed the crown onto her head causing her to wince in pain. After a brief transition under the Provisional Government, the oligarchical Republic of Hawaii was established on July 4, 1894, with Sanford B. Dole as president. Led by Sanford Dole, the Missionary Party asked for her abdication in January 1893 and, declaring the queen deposed, announced the establishment of a provisional government pending annexation by the United States. , On March 7, 1852, Kapiʻolani married High Chief Bennett Nāmākēhā, a member of the House of Nobles in Honolulu. The Connecticut native followed his wealthy father into the banking business in the late 1850s, ...read more, American statesman Daniel Webster (1782-1852) earned fame for his staunch support of the federal government and his skills as an orator. As leader of the “Stand Firm” (Oni pa’a) movement, Liliuokalani fought steadfastly against U.S. annexation of Hawaii. .". Cracroft wrote: At last she [Queen Emma] yielded, but sent for his [Prince Albert's] nurse, whom we had not before seen—only heard of.  In a ceremony officiated by Liliʻuokalani on June 24, 1910, her remains, and those of her husband's family, were transferred for a final time to the underground Kalākaua Crypt after the main mausoleum building had been converted into a chapel. Nāmākēhā died on December 27, 1860, at Honolulu. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Queen Emma wrote Kapiʻolani a very kind reply in her March 1863 letter, "Dear Kapiʻolani, my companion in the caring of my son. She was known from that time by her royal name, Liliuokalani. Liliʻuokalani ruled for two years before she was overthrown, on January 17, 1893. This page was last edited on 21 October 2020, at 23:07. Preparations were made for an anticipated crowd exceeding 5,000, with lawn chairs to accommodate any overflow. The organization grew slowly during the hard years of the 1870s, but worker militancy rose toward the end of the decade, especially after the great railroad strike of 1877, and the Knights’ ...read more, One of the most powerful bankers of his era, J.P. (John Pierpont) Morgan (1837-1913) financed railroads and helped organize U.S. Steel, General Electric and other major corporations. She was granted a small pension by the provisional government, and on July 7, 1898, the Hawaiian Islands were officially annexed by the United States. Kapiolani, Queen. Her ladies-in-waiting tried in vain to rearrange her hairpins and combs, but the crown still could not fit into place. Queen Liliuokalani (1838-1917) was the last sovereign of the Kalākaua dynasty, which had ruled a unified Hawaiian kingdom since 1810. Reared in the missionary tradition deemed appropriate for Hawaiian princesses, she received a thoroughly modern education, which was augmented by a tour of the Western world. As crown princess, she was thereafter known by her royal name, Liliuokalani. It included Kapiʻolani, Princess Liliʻuokalani and Liliʻuokalani's husband John Owen Dominis, as well as Court Chamberlain Colonel Curtis P. Iʻaukea acting as the king's official envoy of the King and Colonel James Harbottle Boyd acting as aide-de-camp to the Queen. Cleveland ordered the queen restored and rejected the treaty of annexation sent to Congress by his predecessor, Pres. Hiram R. Revels is the first African American to serve in the United States Senate. Kapiʻolani was born December 31, 1834, in Hilo on Hawaiʻi Island to High Chief Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole of Hilo and High Chiefess Kinoiki Kekaulike of Kauaʻi, the daughter of King Kaumualiʻi, the last king of an independent Kauaʻi before its cession to Kamehameha the Great. The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today was a famous satirical novel by Mark Twain set in the late 1800s, and was its namesake. the mountains through a multitude of difficulties back to Hilo. In 1891, following the death of King Kalakaua, she … In that year she published Hawaii’s Story by Hawaii’s Queen and composed “Aloha Oe,” a song ever afterward beloved in the islands.  Kapiʻolani became queen consort of Hawaii upon the accession of her husband to the Hawaiian throne.  A clinical analysis into the cause of Kalākaua's death led to speculation that the king may have been infertile since Kapiʻolani had a miscarried pregnancy with her previous marriage. Liliuokalani opposed this constitution, as well as the Reciprocity Treaty, by which Kalākaua had granted commercial privileges to the United States, along with control over Pearl Harbor. This was traditionally thought to have induced the brain fever which killed the prince.  Did you know? That evening, the royal couple hosted a state dinner, and there was a luau at a later day. Kalakaua's Coronation Accomplished: A Large But Unenthusiastic Assemblage", "Queen Dowager Kapiolani Passes Away – Death Came at 8:45 This Morning – Peaceful Ending of a Well Rounded Life", "A Queen Called – Death of the Widow of the Late Kalakaua R. – Had Long Been Ill – Passes Away At Her Waikiki Home Closing Scenes – Funeral Arrangements", "In the Footsteps of Kapiʻolani – Retracing Queen Kapiʻolani's Journey to London in 1887", Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kapiʻolani&oldid=984761275, Recipients of the Royal Order of Kamehameha I, Recipients of the Royal Order of Kalākaua, Recipients of the Royal Order of Kapiolani, Recipients of the Royal Order of the Crown of Hawaii, Grand Cordons of the Order of the Precious Crown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox royalty with unknown parameters, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Originally a lawyer, Webster was elected a New Hampshire congressman in 1813. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Wishing to spare her people a bloody conflict, Liliuokalani stepped down but appealed to President Grover Cleveland to restore her to power. During her last days, she was in a comatose state and died on June 24, 1899, at age sixty-four. The following January, Liliuokalani and a group of her supporters were arrested by the new government and charged with treason for their implication in an attempted insurrection. Benjamin Harrison. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).  She was almost eighteen years old, while her husband was thirty years her senior. The United States annexed Hawaii in 1898. From March to May 1874, they toured the main Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Maui, Hawaii Island, Molokaʻi and Oahu. Kapiʻolani promised to build a home for these children. On the death of King Kalakaua in January 1891, Liliuokalani ascended the throne, becoming the first woman ever to occupy it. Liliuokalani, original name Lydia Kamakaeha, also called Lydia Liliuokalani Paki or Liliu Kamakaeha, (born September 2, 1838, Honolulu, Hawaii [U.S.]—died November 11, 1917, Honolulu), first and only reigning Hawaiian queen and the last Hawaiian sovereign to … Hawaii State Archives. Cleveland offered Liliuokalani reinstatement in return for her granting amnesty to all those who had been involved in the coup.  Today, Kalākaua's coronation pavilion serves as the bandstand for the Royal Hawaiian Band. , Her medical legacy Kapiʻolani Maternity Home survives today as the Kapiʻolani Medical Center for Women and Children. Abolitionist and feminist Sarah Moore Grimké and her sister Angelina were the first women to testify before a state legislature on the issue of rights for Black people.  Nāmākēhā and Kapiʻolani had no children, although a pregnancy resulted in a miscarriage. In the years that followed, Liliuokalani did much to lay the foundations for her future on the throne, devoting her efforts to establishing schools for Hawaiian children and serving as regent during the king’s 1881 tour of the world. Born Lydia Kamakaeha in Honolulu, Hawaii, on September 2, 1838, Liliuokalani was the daughter of a high-ranking chieftess who served as an adviser to King Kamehameha III. Leleiohoku (who had been Kalākaua's heir apparent), died in 1877, Lydia was named presumptive heir to the throne. It was inspired by a horseback ride in Oahu in 1877, when she witnessed a farewell embrace between two lovers. She was in danger of death, but some men carried her over. Kapiʻolani (December 31, 1834 – June 24, 1899) was the queen and consort of Mōʻī (king) Kalākaua of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, who reigned from 1874 to 1891 until his death when she became known as the Dowager Queen Kapiʻolani. Liliuokalani regretted the loss of power the monarchy had suffered under Kalakaua and tried to restore something of the traditional autocracy to the Hawaiian throne. She served as the wet nurse to Prince Albert, the son of Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma, who died when he was only four years old. Other than his ...read more, The Knights of Labor began as a secret society of tailors in Philadelphia in 1869. He later served as a Massachusetts congressman and senator, ...read more, Shipping and railroad tycoon Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877) was a self-made multi-millionaire who became one of the wealthiest Americans of the 19th century. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.  As a boy, he worked with his father, who operated a boat that ferried cargo between Staten Island, New York, where they ...read more. She is rather young and very nice-looking—dressed like us, and in mourning. In 1891, following the death of King Kalakaua, she became the first female monarch of the country. It was in this capacity that she demonstrated what would be her lifelong devotion to the Hawaiian people and first made enemies on the islands: When a smallpox epidemic on Oahu led her to close its ports, she was hailed by many locals but also drew the ire of wealthy sugar cane growers.
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