Int.J.Phys.Chem.Ber.Bunsen-Ges. Waddington G.; Douslin D.R. : Thermochemistry of conjugation of simple cyclopropane derivatives. ; Schmid R.: Properties of Liquids at the Boiling Point: Equation of State, Internal Pressure and Vaporization Entropy. The conversion is catalyzed by the enzyme cytochrome P450 utilizing oxygen from air.  Chronic occupational exposure to elevated levels of n-hexane has been demonstrated to be associated with peripheral neuropathy in auto mechanics in the US, and neurotoxicity in workers in printing presses, and shoe and furniture factories in Asia, Europe, and North America. , Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, "A study found hexane in soy protein. They are commonly used in food based soybean oil extraction in the United States, and are potentially present as contaminants in all soy food products in which the technique is used; the lack of regulation by the FDA of this contaminant is a matter of some controversy. . : Experimental vapor heat capacities and heats of vaporization of n-hexane and 2,2-dimethylbutane.. J.Am.Chem.Soc. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, "I.  Since hexane cannot be easily deprotonated, it is used in the laboratory for reactions that involve very strong bases, such as the preparation of organolithiums. , Hexanes are commonly used in chromatography as a non-polar solvent.  In 2010–2011, Chinese workers manufacturing iPhones were reported to have suffered hexane poisoning. The heat evolved raised the temperature of 200 g of water from 293.5 K to 345.1 K. Use this data to calculate the enthalpy of combustion of hexane (the specific heat capacity of water is 4.18 J g-1 K-1). A sample of hexane (C6H14) has a mass of 0.580 g. The sample is burned in a bomb calorimeter that has a mass of 1.900 kg and a specific heat of 3.21 J/giK. In industry, hexanes are used in the formulation of glues for shoes, leather products, and roofing. "Hexane" can mean any of the 5 structural isomers (meaning compounds with the same chemical formula but a different shape) it has. ; Pashchenko L.L. Inhalation of n-hexane at 5000 ppm for 10 minutes produces marked vertigo; 2500-1000 ppm for 12 hours produces drowsiness, fatigue, loss of appetite, and paresthesia in the distal extremities; 2500–5000 ppm produces muscle weakness, cold pulsation in the extremities, blurred vision, headache and anorexia. , Hexane was identified as being the cause of the Louisville sewer explosions on February 13, 1981, that destroyed more than 13 miles (21 km) of sewer lines and streets in the center of Louisville in Kentucky, United States, n-Hexane is biotransformed to 2-hexanol and further to 2,5-hexanediol in the body. They are also used to extract cooking oils (such as canola oil or soy oil) from seeds, for cleansing and degreasing a variety of items, and in textile manufacturing. Commercial samples of n-hexane however often contains methylcyclopentane, which features tertiary C-H bonds, which are incompatible with some radical reactions. 60 (1982) 1832-1835, Huisman J.; Sage B.H. 2,5-Hexanediol may be further oxidized to 2,5-hexanedione, which is neurotoxic and produces a polyneuropathy. 2) In an experiment, 1.00 g of hexane (C 6H14) was completely burned in air. ", Use of ozone depleting substances in laboratories, "CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Hexane isomers (excluding n-Hexane)", "Appendix G: 1989 Air Contaminants Update Project - Exposure Limits NOT in Effect", "Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan", "Workers poisoned while making iPhones – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)", "Workers Sickened at Apple Supplier in China", Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Warning from National Safety Council "COMMON CHEMICAL AFFECTS AUTO MECHANICS", "EPA does not consider n-hexane classifiable as a human carcinogen. , A typical laboratory use of hexanes is to extract oil and grease contaminants from water and soil for analysis. 69 (1947) 2275-2279, Fuchs R.; Hallman J.H.  The current n-hexane PEL in the US is 500 ppm (1,800 mg/m3 (0.79 gr/cu ft)). Pure hexane has no color and is quite unreactive. See also tabulated values of specific heat of gases, food and foodstuff, metals and semimetals, common solids and other common substances as well as values of molar heat capacity of common organic substances and inorganic substances. 98 (1994) 1590-1595, Varushchenko R.M. Hexane (/ ˈ h ɛ k s eɪ n /) is a straight-chain alkane with six carbon atoms and has the molecular formula C 6 H 14.. Hexane is a significant constituent of gasoline.It is a colorless liquid, odorless when pure, and with boiling points approximately 69 °C (156 °F). n-Heptane is a possible alternative. In preparative chromatography, concentration of a large volume of hexanes can result in a sample that is appreciably contaminated by alkanes. Zh.Fiz.Khim. The experimental data shown in these pages are freely available and have been published already in the DDB Explorer Edition.The data represent a small sub list of all available data in the Dortmund Data Bank.For more data or any further information please search the DDB or contact DDBST..  The boiling points of the various hexanes are somewhat similar and, as for other alkanes, are generally lower for the more branched forms. It is a colorless liquid, odorless when pure, and with boiling points approximately 69 °C (156 °F). J.Chem.Eng.Data 9 (1964) 223-226.  However, for n-hexane, the current NIOSH REL is 50 ppm (180 mg/m3 (0.079 gr/cu ft)) over an 8-hour workday. Can.J.Chem. "Hexane" can mean any of the 5 structural isomers (meaning compounds with the same chemical formula but a different shape) it has. Like gasoline, hexane is highly volatile and is an explosion risk. Heat capacity, c p: 156 J/(mol K) Gas properties Std enthalpy change of formation, Δ f H o gas –123.1 kJ/mol Standard molar entropy, S o gas: 298.19 J/(mol K) Heat capacity, c p: 105.3 J/(mol K) van der Waals' constants: a = 2311 L 2 kPa/mol 2 b = 0.1424 liter per mole , The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) for hexane isomers (not n-hexane) of 100 ppm (350 mg/m3 (0.15 gr/cu ft)) over an 8-hour workday. All alkanes are colorless. 70 (1996) 228-231, Waddington G.; Douslin D.R. The data represent a small sub list of all available data in the Dortmund Data Bank. ; Druzhinina A.I. This may result in a solid compound being obtained as an oil and the alkanes may interfere with analysis. For more data or any further information please search the DDB or contact DDBST. ", Hydrogen chalcogenides (Group 16 hydrides), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hexane&oldid=984042252, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, −96 to −94 °C; −141 to −137 °F; 177 to 179 K, 68.5 to 69.1 °C; 155.2 to 156.3 °F; 341.6 to 342.2 K, This page was last edited on 17 October 2020, at 20:23. There is a lot of hexene in gasoline.  n-Hexane is sometimes used as a denaturant for alcohol, and as a cleaning agent in the textile, furniture, and leather industries. It is slowly being replaced with other solvents.. What amount of heat is produced during the combustion of hexane if the temperature of the calorimeter increases by 4.542 K? 3-methylhexane is an alkane that is hexane substituted by a methyl group at position 3. 68 (1990) 1937-1949, Matyushov D.V. The industrial product (usually around 50% by weight of the straight-chain isomer) is the fraction boiling at 65–70 °C (149–158 °F). The experimental data shown in these pages are freely available and have been published already in the DDB Explorer Edition. The term hexanes refers to a mixture, composed largely (>60%) of hexane, with varying amounts of the isomeric compounds 2-methylpentane and 3-methylpentane, and, possibly, smaller amounts of nonisomeric C5, C6, and C7 (cyclo)alkanes. The specific heat for some commonly used liquids and fluids is given in the table below. Hexane has considerable vapor pressure at room temperature: Like most alkanes, hexane characteristically exhibits low reactivity and are suitable solvents for reactive compounds. propanone (the specific heat capacity of water is 4.18 J g-1 K-1). Can.J.Chem. , The acute toxicity of hexane is rather low. ; Moura Ramos J.J.; Goncalves R.M. a) Heat capacity of liquid n-Hexane (Cp) at 31.0 C can be calculated using form 1 isas- Cp= a + bT + cT2 + dT3 Cp= (216.3 x 10-3) kJ/(mol view the full answer Previous … The exact composition of the fraction depends largely on the source of the oil (crude or reformed) and the constraints of the refining. Hexane is a significant constituent of gasoline.
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