Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Littleton, Colorado, 1994. Guidance on the content of reports is provided through various accrediting bodies (American Society for Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board [ASCLD/LAB] 2006; International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation [ILAC] 2002; ISO/IEC 2005). Although these are not direct indicators of the rarity in any specific case, they can be used to show that the probability of a coincidental match is rare. Koons and Buscaglia (1999) used the data from a chemical composition database and refractive index database to calculate the probability of a coincidental match.
The Lockerbie Bombing In this method, a phase-contrast microscope converts the difference in index between a particle and the immersion liquid into a difference in brightness contrast. The most important of these considerations in interpreting the results of glass analyses is that the variations within an object are typically smaller than the variations among objects. . John Wayne Gacy This fluorescence can be used as a basis to differentiate glass specimens (Lloyd 1981). Fluorescence on a glass surface will be detected only if the surface that will fluoresce is preserved, collected, and analyzed. Schmitt, R. A. and Smith, V. Identification of origin of glass by neutron activation analysis in a forensic case. This process is repeated until the refractive index of the match point has either been reached or bracketed by two oils.
Tempered glass is typically four to five times more resistant to breakage than nontempered glass (Varshneya 1994). You should continually demonstrate that you have maintained integrity throughout your investigation. Hatch, F. H., Wells, A. K., and Wells, M. K. Textbook of Petrology: Petrology of the Igneous Rocks. Glass densities by settling method: Water-bath apparatus for production control in glass plants.
The person breaking a window will have more glass on him or her than a bystander, and the more blows required to break out the glass, the more glass that will be transferred (Allen et al.
Microscopic Identification of Crystals. Arbab, M., Shelestak, L. J., and Harris, C. S. Value-added flat-glass products for the building, transportation markets, part 1, American Ceramic Society Bulletin (2005) 84:30–35. This preparation technique is destructive (SWGMAT 2005a). Refractive index determinations are more rapid and can be performed with smaller samples, so most laboratories choose to perform refractive index determinations first.
ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.
A. Howden, C. R., German, B., and Smalldon, K. W. The determination of iron and magnesium in small glass fragments using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Petterd et al.
To date, Clark does not have a criminal record.Paul Ekman was coincidentally onsite during the interview, and was asked to examine the video of the interview.
1994). However, these studies do not simulate forensic science case work involving fracture pattern analysis of window pane glass and glass bottles. Locke, J. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959. Was it malicious software? With recent digital incidents involving breach of data, users are becoming more cognizant of the threat posed by malicious actors having access to personal data as well as vulnerable applications which may compromise their data.
Conclusions may also be presented in sworn statements, either through deposition or testimony. Ladd Research Industries, Inc., United States, 1980, p. 7. Williams, H., Turner, F. J., and Gilbert, C. M. Petrography: An Introduction to the Study of Rocks in Thin Section, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1982, pp. Elemental analysis of glass. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania. Many methods have been used for compositional analysis of glass. R. E. Krieger Publishing, Malabar, Florida, 1981. Primary transfer also can occur when a person or object comes into contact with previously broken glass (Allen et al.
Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Fluorescence. Vol. Scientific Working Group for Materials Analysis (SWGMAT).
The network logs conclusively suggest that Clark’s computer was used to access the illegal content. A V-block refractometer can measure only the average refractive index through a block of glass.
Hickman, D. A. Elemental analysis and the discrimination of sheet glass samples, Forensic Science International (1983) 23:213–223. (January 2005b).
Due to this feature, majority of the users use Tor browser for normal use as well as malign activities.
A. Tape measures can be used in the photographs to show the distances that the broken glass has traveled. The typical density variation measured in a bottle is 0.002 g/cm3, and the typical density variation measured across a sheet of glass is 0.001 g/cm3 (Koons 2002).
Koons, R. D., Peters, C. A., and Rebbert, P. S. Comparison of refractive index, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for forensic characterization of sheet glass fragments. It is not always possible to assess every potential point of comparison in each glass specimen because not all fragments transferred, recovered, and submitted for forensic analysis will express every feature. Examination of samples under a regular microscope or a scanning electron microscope can give detailed information about the sample's physical and chemical characteristics.
ASTM International. I. 1997). Development and evaluation of a standard method for the quantitative determination of elements in float glass samples by LA-ICP-MS, Journal of Forensic Sciences (2005) 50:1327–1341. A. Both the Becke line method and dispersion staining method produce rapid results using equipment that is readily available in most laboratories: a microscope and calibrated liquids. Available: http://www.astm.org/Standards/E1967.htm. This is publication number 09-04 of the Laboratory Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
Hickman, D. A., Harbottle, G., and Sayre, E. V. The selection of the best elemental variables for the classification of glass samples, Forensic Science International (1983) 23:189–212. The assessment of color in glass can be difficult.
How many files of every type were present.
Forensic Science Service, Birmingham, England, 1989. Consider what is important to include and what serves no purpose. B. F. Fluorescence spectrometry in the identification and discrimination of float and other surfaces on window glasses, Journal of Forensic Sciences (1981) 26:325–342. The variation in glass properties between types of glasses is pronounced (Boyd et al. 2005), which is then swept into the ICP torch and analyzed as any other ICP-MS specimen (SWGMAT 2005a). The composition of the glass changes gradually as more raw materials are added (Arbab 2005).
Corning, Incorporated, Corning, New York, 1998. The administrative reviewer ensures that the report is concise, accurate, and complete; that the report and examination conform to FBI Laboratory practices; and that the prior two stages of the review have been conducted (FBI 2007).
As with SEM-EDS and SEM-WDS, the X-rays emitted by the glass specimen have characteristic energies and wavelengths, which can be used to identify the elements present, and the intensities of the peaks can be used to quantify the results (Skoog and West 1980), or ratios of the intensities can be used for semiquantitative results. Additionally, there can be secondary transfer of glass between people and objects, such as when glass is transferred from a person to a vehicle seat (Allen et al.
The probability that two glass fragments from different sources will have indistinguishable concentrations of ten elements is extremely small (Koons and Buscaglia 1999). Care should be taken to avoid changes in the temperature of the column. Nevertheless, it is still a reasonable possibility, so characterization of the glass is useful.
New Developments in the Forensic Examination of Glass, The Microscope (1984) 32:1–11. The density of a solution can be changed by adding small amounts of miscible liquids with different densities.
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