Daoism, an ancient Chinese religion (with later Buddhist influences) that inspired some emulation in Japan and Korea, holds a middling position with respect to monastic ventures, lying somewhere between the powerfully antimonastic Confucian schools that always represented the official culture and mainstream of sophisticated Chinese opinion and the radically monastic Buddhists.
A philosophy that emerged in Song-dynasty China; it revived Confucian thinking while adding in Buddhist and Daoist elements. Although celibacy is postulated for the Buddhist clergy everywhere, there have always been notable exceptions. Originally, women were among those ordained. Since the 19th century the monastic Udasi order (founded by Nanak’s elder son Siri Chand) has achieved a most successful rapprochement with Hindu elements. Ap World Vocab Test 2. On a very basic level it is a burial mound for the Buddha. If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.
A Japanese pilgrim, Saichō (767–822), brought Tendai monasticism to Mount Hiei near Kyōto, Japan, where it has flourished ever since. 92 terms. Buddhism, far more than in other monastic traditions of the world—with the possible exception of Jainism—attaches central importance to the order, in part because the Buddha began every one of his sermons with the address bhikkhave (“O ye begging monks”). The Hindu and Buddhist Tantric groups (practicing occult, sometimes sexual, meditative techniques) represent esoteric countermonasticism in India, though these practices have been accepted fully in certain Tibetan Buddhist hierarchies. In principle, the rules are laid down in the vinaya (monastic rules) portion of the Buddha’s sermons, but monastic traditions and regulations have also been shaped by environmental and cultural conditions. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Particularly in Japan, through the leadership of Hōnen, Shinran, and Ippen in the late 12th and 13th centuries, Pure Land Buddhism eventually dispensed with monastic obligations altogether. When Daoist settlements were cenobitic or celibate, these features were indeed incidental to Daoism, which defies and rejects rules of any corporate kind. The married monks of pre-20th-century Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and those of some of the Japanese Buddhist orders are conspicuous examples. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Commonly celibate and universally ascetic, the monastic individual separates himself or herself from society either by living as a hermit or … Cao Dai propounded an eclectic theology, with a pope and such heterogeneous patron saints as the 19th-century French novelist Victor Hugo, the World War II British prime minister Winston Churchill, and the Buddha.
Members were bound by vows that did not include celibacy or poverty but stressed obedience to the hierarchy. Buddhism. ... AP World History Period 3. Buddhism, the first Indian religion to require large communal and monastic spaces, inspired three types of architecture. The Spread of MonAsticism. Even more elaborate in its ceremonies is Vajrayana (Tantric or Esoteric) Buddhism, which under the name Zhenyan (“True Word”) thrived in 8th-century Tang-dynasty China and under the name Shingon (the Japanese pronunciation of Zhenyan) was taken to Mount Kōya in Japan by Kūkai (c. 774–835). Edtior of Encyclopedia of Monasticism. The Daoist settlements of sages, in forests and mountain glades as well as in the cities, are, at best, analogous to the eremitic type of proto-monasticism. Donate or volunteer today! They usually lack a body of rules and conventions that would be recognized or accepted by a wider Hindu-Buddhist-Jain consensus. The fundamental activity, however, remains meditation (Sanskrit dhyana, Pali jhana, from which is derived the schools of Buddhism known as Chan in China and Zen in Japan). The recitation of the “threefold refuge” formula that makes a person a Buddhist, either lay or monastic, enacts a pledge of “taking refuge” in the Buddha, the dharma (“teaching”), and the sangha; most commentaries imply that the three elements are equally important. In the earliest days of Buddhism, there was no organized monastic community, only the followers of the Buddha. Tibetan Buddhist monk reading with handbell in Lamayuru monastery, Ladakh, India. Some scholars believe that Daoism may have come under Indian influences, because it originated in the southwestern parts of China. Differences in living style between the northern (Mahayana, or “Greater Vehicle”) and the southern (Theravada, called Hinayana, or “Lesser Vehicle,” in derogation) monastic institutions are quite radical. The name of the more mystical and larger of the two main Buddhist sects. If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. In the 4th century CE, the monastic movement spread to the European continent when John Cassian (c. 360 – c. 430 CE), a “Desert Father” and friend of Saint John Chrysostom the “Golden-Mouthed” (c. 347 – 407 CE), founded this Egyptian-style monastery in Gaul (modern-day France). Its disciplinary, sartorial, and cenobitic settings are identical with those of the Hindu sannyasi. rules drawn up in 530 by Benedict, a monk, regulation monastic life. Start studying AP World Unit 1 Vocabulary. 52 terms. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The chief object of Daoism, however, is not redemption or salvation, at least as those goals are interpreted in other scripturally based religions. Governance in south/southeast asia. In mahayan buddhism, a person who chooses to delay reaching nirvana to help other sufferers. It is not known exactly when the practice of ordaining women stopped, but it may have been related to the difficulties associated with travel and … Buddhism in China Spread by the Silk Roads, took form of Mahavana Buddhism. The path of meditation leads positively toward the intuitive understanding of momentariness, the condition of existence—or, to state it negatively, toward the total rejection of all notions of permanence. The monastic discipline of the Buddhist clergy varies widely in the different parts of the Buddhist world. AP World Unit II. Although Chan or Zen remains by far the best-known branch of Mahayana Buddhism, China evolved other major schools, many of which spread to Japan. This one originated in India in the 400s CE and gradually found its way north to the Silk road and into Central and East Asia. a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work, Ex Hindu prince who journeyed to find enlightenment and founded Buddhism, A person who believes in the equality of all people. Buddhist Monasticism. The original stupas contained the Buddha's ashes. This accounts for the fact that the Udasi is now respected as equal to the most prestigious and ancient Hindu orders. Rather, the ultimate aim of the Daoist practitioner is longevity or ultimate physical immortality. The Sikh monastic Nirmal-akhada and the quasi-monastic Nihang Sahibs came to terms with the overall Indian tendency to establish monastic traditions that express full-time involvement in redemptive practice. The generic term for the Buddhist monastic order is the sangha; the terms denoting the order in all Buddhist countries are literal translations of the Indian word. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The rule emphasizes obedience, poverty and chastity and divides the day into periods of worship, work and study.
... Buddhist monasticism. St. Benedict of Nursia. illustrative examples of governance in south/southeast asia.
Buddhist monasticism. Rules concerning distance from lay settlements, for example, had to be interpreted and implemented differently depending on whether tropical, moderate, or (as in the case of Tibet and Mongolia) subarctic climatic conditions prevailed. There appears to be a high degree of monastic involvement with lay society, and the provision of special amenities for monks who prefer a strictly contemplative life, as in Sri Lanka and Thailand, has been well defined in practice. They refer to the Adi Granth, the sacred book of the Sikhs, as their basic text, in spite of the fact that their intramonastic and intermonastic discourse proceeds along lines similar to those of the orthodox Hindu orders. See Article History. In South and Southeast Asia, Buddhist monks were and still are teachers to the people—not only in religious matters but also in the realm of basic education—particularly in Myanmar. design2002. 97 terms. Sikhism, founded by the Punjabi reformer Nanak, was the least sympathetic of all indigenous Indian religions to monastic inspirations. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.
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